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Afganistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR26
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    Afgan Cave Complexes 1979-2004 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR26Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan developed and reinforced many natural cave systems to use as supply bases and defensive positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda further strengthened these positions in the 1990s. Following the events of September 11, 2001, these cave systems have once more come to prominence and sites such as Tora Bora and Zhawar Kili have featured in news headlines...

    American Civil War Fortifications (2): Land And Field Fortifications, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR38
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      Author: Ron FieldIllustrator: Peter DennisAbout this bookThe American Civil War saw a massive development in the use of field fortifications, the result of the practical application of antebellum West-Point teaching, and the deadly impact of rifled infantry weapons and artillery. Both the Federal and Confederate armies began to develop far more sophisticated systems of field fortification, and the larger field works and fortifications surrounding Washington, DC and Richmond, VA were redesigned...

      American Civil War Fortifications (3) Mississippi & River Forts, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR68
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        American Civil War Mississippin Fortifications & River Forts, Part 3 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR68The Mississippi River played a decisive role in the American Civil War. The Confederate fortifications that controlled the lower Mississippi valley were put to the test in the lengthy Federal campaign of 1862-63. Vicksburg was a fortress city, known as the 'Gibraltar of the Confederacy', whose capture was seen as the key to victory in the war. This book explores the fortifications of...

        American Coastal Defences 1885-1950, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR44
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          American Coastal Defences 1885-1950 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR44In the late-19th century, with the advances in technology and the increase in America's economic stature, a new round of fortification building began in the United States and its overseas territories. Locations such as Portland, Boston, New York, Baltimore, Charlestown, Savannah, Key West, Los Angeles and San Francisco were all extensively fortified. This book provides a concise introduction to the design, development...

          American Defences Corregidor 1898-1945, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR4
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            American Defences Corregidor 1898-1945 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR4The Philippines were declared an American Territory on January 4, 1899, and fortification construction soon began on the islands in the mouth of Manila Bay. Among the sites built were Fort Mills (Corregidor), Fort Frank, and the formidable "concrete battleship" of Fort Drum. The defenses suffered constant Japanese bombardment during World War II, leading to the surrender of American forces. In 1945 the forts were...

            British Forts In The Age Arthu, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR80
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              British Forts In The Age Arthu by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR80When the Romans left Britain around AD 410, the unconquered native peoples of modern Scotland, Ireland and Wales were presented with the opportunity to pillage what remained of Roman Britain. The Post-Roman Britons did their best to defend themselves by using fortifications. While some Roman forts were maintained, the Post-Roman Britons also created new strongholds, or re-occupied some of the hill-forts first built by...

              British Home Defences 1940-45, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR20
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                British Home Defences 1940-45 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR20In the summer of 1940, Britain asked itself not 'will Hitler invade?' but 'when?' SEALION, the German invasion plan, provoked the construction of pillboxes, coastal defences, heavy-gun emplacements and anti-aircraft batteries, as well as the formation of the Home Guard and covert groups. Later, new dangers replaced SEALION: radar detection systems were expanded during the Blitz years, as were intelligence-gathering systems...

                Castles Of Edward I in Wales 1277-1307, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR64
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                  Castles Of Edward I In Wales 1277-1307 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR64In 1277 Edward I gathered a huge army and marched into Wales to subdue the rebel Welsh princes. A key part of his strategy was to erect a castle wherever his army rested. This title takes a detailed look at the design, development and principles of defence of these Welsh castles, documenting daily life within their walls and the historical events that took place around them. Focusing on key sites, it highlights the...

                  Castles Of Henry VIII, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR66
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                    Castles Of Henry VIII by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR66In the last years of his reign Henry VIII needed a radically modern system of defence to protect England and its new Church. Anticipating a foreign onslaught from Catholic Europe after his split from Rome, Henry energetically began construction of more than 20 stone forts to protect England-s major ports and estuaries. Aided by excellent illustrations, Peter Harrington explores the departure from artillery-vulnerable medieval...

                    Cathar Castles, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR55
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                      Cathar Castles by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR55During the early 13th century the north of what is now France went to war with the south in a bloody crusade aimed at destroying the heretical sect known as the Cathars. The conflict was characterized by vicious guerrilla actions and the besieging of the innumerable fortified sites that dotted the landscape of the south. Illustrated with full colour artwork and stunning photographs, this book describes the castles and fortifications of...

                      Crusader Castle Teutonic Knight, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR19
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                        ALSO AVAILABLE TO BUY AS AN E-BOOK. The original forced conversion of pagan Livonia, what is now the Baltic states of Latvia and Estonia, was carried out by a military order known as the Brethren of the Sword. In 1236 this order was incorporated into the Teutonic Knights following a catastrophic military defeat. The knights had always consolidated their conquests through networks of castles and fortified places, and the Livonian Chapter of the Teutonic Order built castles of stone. This title...

                        Crusader Castles In Holy Land 1097-1192, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR21
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                          Crusader Castles In Holy Land by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR21The Crusaders that landed in the Middle East in the late 11th century brought with them their own traditions of military architecture, but it was not long before their defensive construction began to reflect a broad array of local influences. Most early Crusader structures were relatively small, and tended to increase the existing natural and defensive features of a site. The basic forms comprised freestanding towers,...

                          Crusader Castles In The Holy Land 1192-1302, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR32
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                            Crusader Castles In The Holy L by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR32The debacle of the Second Crusade in 1148 caused the Crusader States to realise the necessity of developing a more cautious strategy. The original expansionist spirit largely disappeared, and the Crusader States made priorities of strengthening their existing fortifications and towns and building new castles. These structures encompassed core aspects of Western European military architecture with the integration of rapidly...

                            Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR11
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                              Crusader Knights & Teutonic by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR11Throughout their stormy history the Teutonic Knights of Germany have always been the most controversial brotherhood ever to call themselves 'Knights of Christ'.They were the most warlike of the religious orders, and this is reflected in the architecture they left behind. In contrast to the Templars who are remembered for their churches, the Teutonic memorials are the magnificent brick-built castles they built as a result of...

                              D-Day Fortifications In Normandy, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR37
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                                Author: Steven J ZalogaIllustrator: Hugh JohnsonAbout this bookGerman defenses along the Normandy beaches were part of the larger Atlantic Wall fortifications designed to defend Fortress Europe. When Field Marshal Erwin Rommel took command of the invasion front in late 1943, he began a program to enhance fortifications along the Normandy coast as he believed that any Allied assault had to be stopped on the invasion beaches themselves. His most important contribution to the defenses was an...

                                Defences Of Pearl Harbor & Oahu 1907-1950, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR8
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                                  Defences Of Pearl Harbor & Oahu 1907-1950 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR8At the beginning of the 20th century, the military importance of the Hawaiian Islands became clear. Oahu in particular was a key bastion in projecting America's military power in the Pacific. The island was turned into a military fortress - and yet it also became the site of one of America's greatest defensive failures, the Japanese attack of December 7, 1941. By the end of World War II, the harbor itself was the...

                                  Defending Space, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR53
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                                    Defending Space by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR53The United States has been developing space for many years, and satellites provide the US Military with an unparaleled advantage over its adversaries. Constellations of both military and civilian satellites provide protection and support for military operations; deliver ballistic missile early warning; supply reliable, secure and jam-proof communications; gather audio-visual intelligence; predict weather patterns; guide navigation; and...

                                    Defense Of Japan 1945, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR99
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                                      Author: Steven J ZalogaIllustrator: Steve NoonAbout this bookIn 1945, with her fleet destroyed and her armies beaten, the only thing that stood between Japan and an Allied invasion was the numerous coastal defence positions that surrounded the islands. This is the first book to take a detailed look at the Japanese home island fortifications that were constructed during 1941_45. Utilizing diagrams, specially commissioned artwork, and sources previously unavailable in English, Steven Zaloga...

                                      Defense Of The Rhine 1944-45, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR102
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                                        Author: Steven J ZalogaIllustrator: Adam HookAbout this bookThe Rhine River represented the last natural defensive barrier for the Third Reich in the autumn of 1944. Although Hitler had been reluctant to allow the construction of tactical defence lines in France, the final defense of the Reich was another matter. As a result, construction of a Rhine defence line began in September 1944. Steven J. Zaloga examines the multiple phases of construction undertaken to strengthen the Westwall...

                                        Defense of the Third Reich 1941?45, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR107
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                                          Author: Steven J. ZalogaIllustrator: Adam HookAbout this bookStarting in 1940, Germany was subjected to a growing threat of Allied bomber attack. The RAF night bombing offensive built up in a slow but unrelenting crescendo through the Ruhr campaign in the summer of 1944 and culminating in the attacks on Berlin in the autumn and early winter of 1943-44. They were joined by US daylight raids which first began to have a serious impact on German industry in the autumn of 1943. This book focuses on...

                                          English Castles 1200-1300, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR86
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                                            English Castles 1200-1300 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR86The simple castles raised after the Norman conquest had been developed throughout 11th and 12th centuries, whilst the introduction of Islamic and Byzantine fortification techniques from the late 12th century led to further developments in castle architecture. These fortifications were to be well tested throughout the course of the 13th century as England was riven by the conflict, characterized by prolonged sieges, between the...

                                            English Civil War Fortifications 1642-51, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR9
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                                              English Civil War Fortifications 1642-51 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR9The techniques of European warfare were transformed during the 15th and 16th centuries by the use of gunpowder and by substantial progress in the effectiveness and destructive power of artillery. The series of conflicts in the 1640s, known collectively as the English Civil War, was the first in the British Isles that reflected this new reality. Sieges that aimed at isolating and reducing fortified places became...

                                              Fort Eben Emael, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR30
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                                                Fort Eben Emael by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR30At the outbreak of World War II, Fort Eben Emael in Belgium was the strongest fortress in the world, and it lay exactly across the German invasion route of Belgium and France. The fort-s elimination was essential for the success of Hitler-s invasion of the West. Deemed impregnable to conventional attack, Hitler himself suggested the means for its capture with the first glider-borne assault in military history. On 10 May 1940, ten gliders...

                                                Fortifications Of The Western Front 1914-18, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR24
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                                                  Fortifications Of The Western by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR24Following the early battles of 1914 along the Marne and in the Ypres salient, World War I rapidly changed from a war of movement into one of attrition, with the opposing sides entrenching themselves in a line of fortified positions from the Flanders coastline to the Swiss border. This volume details the different styles of fortification used on the Western Front throughout the course of the war, from the early ditches of...

                                                  Fortress Monasteries of the Himalayas: Tibet Ladakh Nepal and Bhutan, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR104
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                                                    ABOUT THIS PRODUCTThe spread of Buddism and Tibetan secular power throughout the Himalayas led to a distinctive style of fortifications not found anywhere else. This book looks at Himalayan fortifications, from their creation in the Middle Ages to their destruction and capture by the Chinese in the 20th century.CONTENTSIntroduction Chronology Tibetan culture and its distinctive architecture The causes and nature of warfare in the Tibetan Cultural Region the method of warfare Himalayan...

                                                    Forts Of New France In North American 1660-1763, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR75
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                                                      Forts Of New France In North American 1660-1763 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR75New France' consisted of the area colonized and ruled by France in North America. This title takes a look at the lengthy chain of forts built by the French to guard the frontier in the American northeast, including Sorel, Chambly, St Jean, Carillon (Ticonderoga), Duquesne (Pittsburgh, PA), and Vincennes. These forts were of two types: the major stone forts, and other forts made of wood and earth, all of...

                                                      Forts Of The American Frontier 1776?1891:California, Oregon, Washington, And Alaska, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR105
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                                                        Author: Ron FieldIllustrator: Adam HookAbout this bookWith the violent separation between the United States and Britain which began in 1776, the new _Americans_ set off to fulfill their manifest destiny and rule their new land from coast to coast. As they pushed westward, they came into conflict with both natives and other European settlers, and began to build fortresses to defend their newly claimed land. This book charts the development and variation of the fortresses of the American...

                                                        Forts Of The American Frontier 1820-1891, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR54
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                                                          Forts Of The American Frontier 1820-1891 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR54During the 1840s, the rarely visited -Great American Desert- of the Southern Plains and Southwest became part of the inexorable westward expansion, as European traders and settlers headed overland from the eastern seaboard. The traditional lands of the Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole Indians were quickly absorbed, and the rapid advance of the frontier soon brought the white man into conflict with...

                                                          Forts Of The American Frontier 1820-91, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR28
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                                                            Forts Of The American Frontier by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR28A major period of westward expansion took place in the United States during the first half of the 19th century. Fur trading, the coast-to-coast railroad, the California gold rush and the removal of Native American tribes both facilitated and encouraged America's "manifest destiny" to become a transcontinental nation. The task of protecting the settlers from the tribes that inhabited the Great Plains fell to the US Army,...

                                                            Forts Of The War Of 1812, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR106
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                                                              Author: Ren_ ChartrandIllustrator: Donato SpedaliereAbout this bookWhen war broke out between the United States and Great Britain in 1812, neither side was prepared for the conflict, as evidenced by their respective fortifications. The most sophisticated and modern fortifications were those built by the US Corps of Engineers to protect some of the main port cities. These included Fort Mifflin in Philadelphia, Fort McHenry in Baltimore and Castle William in New York. The British also heavily...

                                                              French Fortress In North America 1535-1763, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR27
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                                                                French Fortress In North America by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR27Author: Rene ChartrandIllustrator: Donato SpedaliereAbout this bookFollowing the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, European colonists brought their system of fortification to the New World in an attempt to ensure their safety and consolidate their conquests. French and British explorers came later to North America, and thus the establishment of their sizeable settlements only got under way during the...

                                                                German Defences In Italy WW II, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR45
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                                                                  German Defences In Italy WW II by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR45In 1943, Hitler ordered his forces to occupy the Italian mainland to protect the Third Reich's 'soft underbelly'. After the successful Allied landings in Salerno, the Germans fought a series of hard, rearguard actions as the Allies slowly pushed north up the peninsula towards the Alps. These actions were based around the construction of a series of defensive lines, including: the Gustav Line, anchored on Monte Cassino, the...

                                                                  German Field Fortifications, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR23
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                                                                    The German Army of World War II considered itself an offensive, mobile force. The experiences in the trenches in World War I had done much to shape its concept of field fortification, and its mobile warfare ethos was intended to prevent the previous war's stalemate. This book addresses frontline defensive field fortifications, built by infantrymen using local materials, and includes rifle platoon positions, trenches, crew-served weapon positions, bunkers, dugouts, shelters and more. It also...

                                                                    German V-Weapon Sites 1943-45, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR72
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                                                                      German V-Weapon Sites 1943-45 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR72Designed to change the course of the war, the V weapons required ambitious plans to defend their expensive and complicated launch sites. Steven J Zaloga describes the configuration and planned deployment of heavy missile sites, as well as the unique Allied tactics developed to counter this threat, including a remote-control version of the B-17 bomber. From the V-1 ski sites to the mobile basing employed by the V-2 units and...

                                                                      Germanys East Wall In WW II, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR108
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                                                                        The East Wall was where the final battles for the stricken Third Reich were fought, amid scenes of utter carnage. Beginning life at the end of World War I, the wall became a pet project of Adolf Hitler's, whose ascent to power saw building work accelerated, with plans for a grand, 'Maginot-style' defence put in place. But with a characteristically erratic change of heart, Hitler began to systematically strip the wall of its best defensive assets to bolster the Atlantic Wall, never dreaming...

                                                                        Greek Fortifications Of Asia, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR90
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                                                                          Greek Fortifications Of Asia by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR90 Fortress 90Author: Konstantin NossovIllustrator: Brian DelfAbout this bookSandwiched between the heart of ancient Greece and the lands of Persia, the Greek cities of Western Anatolia were the spark that ignited some of the most iconic conflicts of the ancient world. Fought over repeatedly in the 5th century BC, their conquest by the Persians provided a casus belli for Alexander the Great to cross the Hellespont in 334 BC...

                                                                          Hadrians Wall  AD 122-410, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR2
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                                                                            Hadrian's Wall Ad122-410 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR2Hadrian-s Wall is the most important monument built by the Romans in Britain. It is the best known frontier in the entire Roman Empire and stands as a reminder of the past glories of one of the world's greatest civilisations. Its origins lie in a visit by the Emperor Hadrian to Britain in AD 122 when he ordered the wall to be built to mark the northern boundary of his Empire and 'to separate the Romans from the Barbarians'. This...

                                                                            Indian Castles 1206-1526 The Rise and Fall of the Delhi Sultanate, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR51
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                                                                              Indian Castles 1206-1526 "The Rise and Fall of the Delhi Sultanate" by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR51Fortress 51Author: Konstantin NossovIllustrator: Brian DelfAbout this bookFrom the beginning of the 2nd millennium AD northern India began to fall under the sway of a number of Muslim-Turkic rulers who, at the start of the 13th century, founded the series of dynasties known to history as the Delhi Sultanate. For three centuries these sultans expanded their territory, which led to a...

                                                                              Israel Fortifications 1973 October War, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR79
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                                                                                Israel Fortifications 1973 October War by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR79The Bar Lev Line along the Suez Canal was born out of the overwhelming victory of the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) in the Six Day War of 1967. Devastated by their defeat, the Egyptian army bombarded Israeli positions, causing many casualties. Accordingly, the IDF Chief of Staff, General Haim Bar-Lev, ordered the construction of a series of fortified positions named the Bar Lev Line. Each position was surrounded by...

                                                                                Japanese Castle In Korea 1592-1598, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR67
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                                                                                  Japanese Castle In Korea 1592-1598 by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR67The Japanese invasion and occupation of Korea, which lasted from 1592 to 1598, was the only occasion in Japanese history when samurai aggression was turned against a foreign country. During the occupation of Korea the Japanese built 25 wajo or castles. Unlike the castles built in Japan, these fortifications were never developed or modernized after the Japanese departure. The details of late 16th-century castle...

                                                                                  Japanese Castles 1540-1640, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR5
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                                                                                    Author: Stephen TurnbullIllustrator: Peter DennisAbout this bookThe landscape of 16th- and 17th-century Japan was dominated by the graceful and imposing castles constructed by the powerful _daimyo_ of the period. In this the most turbulent era in Japanese history, these militarily sophisticated structures provided strongholds for the consolidation and control of territory, and inevitably they became the focus for many of the great sieges of Japanese history: Nagashino (1575), Kitanosho (1583),...

                                                                                    Japanese Fortified Temples and Monasteries AD 710-1062, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR34
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                                                                                      Japanese Fortified Monasteries by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR34From the 10th century onwards the great Japanese monastic foundations of Nara and Mount Hiei maintained large armies of warlike monks. The tempestuous political rivalries that developed between the different orders of monks and religiously inspired laymen ensured that their temples and monasteries had to be securely sited and robustly defended. This books recreates these enormous fortified monasteries and temples, tracing...

                                                                                      Japanese Pacific Island Defenses 1941-45, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR1
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                                                                                        ABOUT THIS PRODUCTThe prolonged and bloody fighting for control of the Japanese occupied Pacific islands in World War II is a key point in 20th-century warfare. No two islands were alike in the systems and nature of their defensive emplacements, and local improvization and command preferences affected both materials used and defensive models. This title details the establishment, construction and effectiveness of Japanese temporary and semi-permanent crew-served weapons positions and...

                                                                                        Mycenaean Citadels 1350-1200bc, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR22
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                                                                                          Mycenaean Citadels 1350-1200bc by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR22Mycenaean society was constantly geared for battle and invasion. Their -cities- were heavy fortresses with unimaginably thick perimeter walls. Legendary sites such as Mycenae, Tiryns, Argos, Krisa, the Athenian Acropolis and Gla are all representative of their fortified citadels that dominated the Greek countryside for some 300 years until their sudden decline and abandonment around 1100 BC. This title describes the golden...

                                                                                          Norman Stone Castles (1) The British Isles 1066-1216, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR13
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                                                                                            Author: Christopher GravettIllustrator: Adam HookAbout this bookDescended from the Viking raiders who settled in Northern France under the leadership of Rollo in around 911, the Normans were amongst the most feared warriors of their time. Their territorial ambitions culminated in Duke William 1's conquest of England in 1066, but although victory at Hastings left the English crown in William's hands, Norman sovereignty remained far from established on the island. In order to consolidate his...

                                                                                            Norman Stone Castles Vol. 2: Europe 950?1204, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR18
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                                                                                              ABOUT THIS PRODUCTFollowing the creation of the Duchy of Normandy, the Normans were soon introduced to the castle and they built them in large numbers. In the mid-11th century, other Norman adventurers began carving out dominions for themselves in Southern Italy: some crossed to Sicily in 1061 and by 1091 had conquered the whole island. As in Normandy, they were keen to assimilate new ideas, including architectural styles, resulting in some striking buildings. This title, a companion to...

                                                                                              Ottoman Fortifications, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR95
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                                                                                                Ottoman Fortifications by Osprey PublishingItem Number: OSPFOR95 Fortress 95Author: David NicolleIllustrator: Adam HookAbout this bookThe Ottoman Empire was heir to the architectural traditions not only of the Byzantine Empire but also to those of the medieval Islamic Middle East. Having learned from these, the Ottomans created a fusion of military architectural styles to which they added what they learned from their later medieval and early modern European rivals. This book explores the...

                                                                                                Roman Legionary Fortresses 27 BC-AD 378, Osprey Publishing Item Number OSPFOR43
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                                                                                                  Author: Duncan B CampbellIllustrator: Brian DelfAbout this bookFrom the reign of Augustus (27 BC_AD 14) onwards the Roman Army became a standing force with permanent fortresses distributed throughout the empire. These fortresses developed from the temporary fortifications of the legions on campaign into temporary wooden structures, before finally becoming more elaborate stone fortifications designed to stand the test of time. This book describes the development, design and construction of...

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